Knowledge Bank

Knowledge Bank

Below are some background reading and links to further articles on the subjects of EMFs, Geopathic Stress and also Earthing. Feel free to read at your liberty!

Most of us want to believe that EMFs are harmless because we rely so heavily on electrical and wireless technology. Surely our Government would protect us by putting in legislation to ensure devices are safe for us to use?

But here’s the problem. There is now mounting evidence that non-thermal effects of microwaves cause harm to our health. However, the World Health Organisation (WHO), International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEE) and the EU Commission all base their analysis of how harmful EMFs are on thermal effects and do not take into account the mounting scientific studies which prove that non-thermal effects cause harm.

Other countries are taking this issue much more seriously, especially with regard to children.

The European Parliament voted in September 2008 to recommend tighter safety standards for mobile phones and other wireless technology, particularly to protect vulnerable groups like children, pregnant women and newborn babies.

The German government’s health protection agency recommends the public reduce their exposure to high frequency radiation to minimise health risks. It recommends:

The Frankfurt City Government and the Bavarian Parliament have recommended not installing wi-fi in schools.

The French Government has announced that it is introducing legislation to ban advertising of mobile phones to children under 14. The French Senate is also pressing for a ban on the use of mobile phones in primary and middle schools.

The Russian National Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection has concerns of the marketing of mobile phones to children and teenagers and stated that that the risk to children from mobile phones is not much lower than the risk to children’s health from tobacco or alcohol.  The Committee explains the risks as follows:

  • the absorption of electro-magnetic energy in a child’s head is considerably higher than that in the head of an adult (a child’s brain has higher conductivity, smaller size, thin skull bones, smaller distance from the antenna etc.)
  • children are more sensitive to electro-magnetic fields than adults
  • childrens’ brains have higher sensitivity to the accumulation of the adverse effects from chronic exposure to electro-magnetic fields
  • electro-magnetic fields affect higher nervous activity
  • today’s children will spend a longer time using mobile phones than today’s adults will do

The Committee states that children mobile phone users are likely to face the following hazards in the near future:

  • disruption of memory
  • decline of attention
  • diminishing learning and cognitive abilities
  • increased irritability
  • sleep problems
  • increase in sensitivity to stress
  • increased epileptic readiness

It states that children have the following possible long-term health risks:

  • brain tumours
  • tumours of acoustical and vestibular nerves (at age 25-30)
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • dementia – depressive syndrome
  • other types of degeneration of the nervous structures of the brain (at age 50 to 60)

The Indian Ministry of Telecommunication has recommended that children under the age of 16 should be discouraged from using mobile phones

The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) advised that children’s mobile phone use be restricted.

The Israeli Ministry of Health recommended limiting children’s use of mobile phones, avoidance of cellular communication in enclosed places such as elevators and trains, and use of wired, not wireless, earpieces, stating that children will have more time to use a mobile phone for a longer period of time than adults. The long-term risks from the use of mobile phones cannot be assessed before the phones have been in use for several decades. Additionally, children’s brains are developing up to the age of 20 years.

The Authority suggests that the children’s mobile phone use could be restricted in the following ways:

  • favouring the use of text messages rather than calls
  • parents limiting the number of calls and their duration
  • using hands-free devices
  • avoiding talking in an area with low connectivity or in a moving car or a train.

Public Health Department of Salzburg has warned that wi-fi should not be installed in schools or nurseries.

The Austrian Medical Association is lobbying against the deployment of wi-fi in schools.

Health Concerns linked to EMF exposure:

Asthma

De-Kun Li, MD, PhD; Hong Chen, MPH; Roxana Odouli, MSPH  Maternal Exposure to Magnetic Fields During Pregnancy in Relation to the Risk of Asthma in Offspring  Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(10):945-950. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.135  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14962625Author Affiliations: Division of Research, Kaiser Foundation Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, California.

Electromagnetic Radiation ( EMR ) And Potential Adverse Health Affects
September 14, 2015 http://www.ecolibria.com.au/electromagnetic-radiation-emr-and-potential-adverse-health-affects/

In a study, researchers found that babies born to women who were exposed to stronger EMFs during pregnancy had more than 3x the risk of developing asthma than babies born to mothers exposed to weaker EMFs. In Australia, the Institute of Health announced in 2007 that the 5 leading causes of non-fatal illness for the country were: diabetes, ischemic heart disease, dementia, asthma, anxiety and depression. All of these were linked to the sudden explosion of wireless technology ~15 years ago.

References:

Autism

Wireless Radiation in the Etiology and Treatment of Autism: Clinical Observations and Mechanisms J. Aust. Coll. Nutr. & Env. Med. Vol. 26 No.2 (August 2007) pages 3-7 Tamara J Mariea1 and George L Carlo2

Martha R. Herbert Autism and EMF? Plausibility of a pathophysiological link part II
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pathophys.2013.08.002

Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASCs) involve multi-level disturbances of underlying biology. They have been indicted as a result of biological effects of Radio Frequency (RF) EMF radiation exposure. It is hypothesized that the Electromagnetic Radiation exposure causes oxidative damage and cellular stress to proteins, which results in neurological harm. Electromagnetic Radiation is purported to set the biological balance out of tune and exacerbate symptoms of ACS for those who possess the disorder.

References:

Burns

G SharmaBurn Injury Caused by Laptop Computers Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2013 Nov; 3(Suppl1): S31–S32. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3853603/

Ryan R Riahi1 MD, Philip R Cohen2 MD Laptop-induced erythema ab igne: Report and review of literature http://escholarship.org/uc/item/4n04r793

Non-ionizing radiation leads to heat generation. Thermal effects can lead to burns. Two patients suffered inadvertent injury to their oral mucosa, requiring medical treatment, after the ingestion of microwave-heated food. Thermal burns can also be caused by exposure to laptops or other electronic devices. Care must be taken to be cognizant of the heat generated by electronic devices.

References:

Cancer

Johansen C (2004). Electromagnetic fields and health effects-epidemiologic studies of cancer, diseases of the central nervous system and arrhythmia-related heart disease. Scand J Work Environ Health. 30 suppl 1:1-80 http://www.sjweh.fi/show_abstract.php?abstract_id=792 (P 16)

World Health Organization and IARC classifies microwave radiation as a “possible carcinogen” – May 31, 2011: http://www.iarc.fr/en/media-centre/pr/2011/pdfs/pr208_E.pdf

Depression & Suicide

Bachmann M, H Hinrikus, K Aadamsoo, U Vohma, J Lass, J Rubljova, A Suhhova, V Tuulik (2007). Modulated microwave effects on individuals with depressive disorder. Environmentalist 27: 505–510. http://www.springerlink.com/content/a3477841862537p7/

Bortkiewicz A, Zmyślony M, Szyjkowska A, Gadzicka E. (2004). [Subjective symptoms reported by people living in the vicinity of cellular phone base stations: review]. Med Pr; 55(4):345-51. [Article in Polish]. Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15620045

Perry, F. S., Reichmanis, M., Marino, A. A. and Becker, R. O., (1981). Environmental power frequency magnetic fields and suicide. Health Physics, 41: 267-277. http://www.revolt.co.uk/trentham/Magnetic_Fields_and_Suicide.pdf

Perry, F.S., Pearl, L., and Binns, R. (1989). Power frequency magnetic field; depressive illness and myocardial infaction. Public Health. 103: 177-180.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2740472

Wilson BW. (1988). Chronic exposure to ELF fields may induce depression. Bioelectromagnetics. 9(2):195-205. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3288221

Yen CF, Tang TC, Yen JY, Lin HC, Huang CF, Liu SC, Ko CH. (2009). Symptoms of problematic cellular phone use, functional impairment and its association with depression among adolescents in Southern Taiwan. J Adolesc. 32(4):863-73. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19027941

General

Laptops, tablets and cell phones emit both Radio Frequency (RF) and Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) radiation, which can be absorbed the tissues closest to where the device is used. Some research has associated radiation exposure to multiple forms of cancer. More research is needed because how people are using their electronic devices vary along with their ages getting younger and younger. More evidence is needed, as skeptics challenge the conflicting reports.

References:

Breast Cancer

In 2013, an article was published which received a good deal of short-term media attention. Public awareness seems to have faded since then. The study showed the cause of 4 women under age 40 whom had developed breast cancer without previous family history or genetic disposition. These young women, ages 21 to 39, were found to have developed breast cancer in the shape of their cell phones in the region of the breast tissue, where they had kept their cell phones daily over the course of 10 hours a day for several years. In a more recent 2014 study, researchers found that Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) EMFs may be increase the risk of human breast cancer and that a woman’s exposure to ELF-EMFs may be the risk factor of breast cancer when they are non-menopausal.

References:

Leukemia

Research has indicated that there may be a slight increased risk for leukemia in children caused by exposure to electromagnetic fields. Homes with high levels of Electromagnetic Radiation, due to the proximity of overhead power cables, had an increased incidence of children whom developed this disease. Because only a small number of children got this rare condition, researchers concluded that the results could be due to other factors or chance despite the results being repeatable. International teams of scientists have since tried to study the correlation. They have been unable to explain the mechanism that causes the disease. Some argue that Electromagnetic Radiation must not cause leukemia because if it did stronger evidence would have been found by now. However, this is a mistake. Scientists themselves say it takes many years to definitively prove any theory or, for that matter, many years for the cancers to emerge once exposed. Just because not enough evidence can be found today does not mean the evidence does not exist.

References:

Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity

Some individuals report suffering from electromagnetic hypersensitivity due to non-ionizing radiation exposure. Typical symptoms associated with this disorder include: headache, fatigue, stress, sleep disturbances, skin symptoms, muscle ache or pain, and other health problems. Presently, there is a controversy as to whether or not individuals can be electromagnetic hypersensitive because some exposed individuals were not able to distinguish between placebo and actual Electromagnetic Radiation fields. However, this is not to say that all individuals cannot be electromagnetic hypersensitive.

References:

Enzyme Dysfunction

Influence of non ionizing radiation of base stations on the activity of redox proteins in bovines.
Hässig M1, Wullschleger M, Naegeli H, Kupper J, Spiess B, Kuster N, Capstick M, Murbach M.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24946856

Electrosensitivity

Dr Erica Mallery-Blythe www.phiremedical.org   https://wddty.com/magazine/2016/may/emfs-sense-and-sensitivity.html

Electromagnetic fields effects on humans and all animals is a concern. Published in 2014, cow enzymes were studied as a model for animal exposure. Exposure to non-ionizing radiation resulted in bovine enzyme changes. Some enzymes were disabled completely. Others exhibited unusual patterns. Yet, others did not react. Thus, these findings corroborate the theory that some individuals may be sensitive to radiation while others are not.

References:

Eye Sight/Injury

Acute ocular injuries caused by 60-Ghz millimeter-wave exposure.
Kojima M1, Hanazawa M, Yamashiro Y, Sasaki H, Watanabe S, Taki M, Suzuki Y, Hirata A, Kamimura Y, Sasaki K.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19667804

Use of fluorescent lighting leading to an increase in eye disease in developed countries:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3222423/

Fertility

Agarwal A, Deepinder, F. Sharma RK, Ranga G. & J. Li. (2008). Effect of cell phone usage on semen analysis in men attending infertility clinic: an observational study, Fertil Steril. 89 (1):124-128. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17482179

Agarwal A, NR. Desai, K Makker, A Varghese, R Mouradi, E Sabanegh, and R Sharma (2009). Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen: an in vitro pilot study. Fertil Steril. 92(4):1318-25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ 18804757

Wang, Xiao-Wu (2010) Mechanisms involved in the blood–testis barrier increased permeability induced by EMP. Toxicology 276(1): 58-63. http://www.safeschool.ca/uploads/Wang_et_al.__2010.pdf

Rabbits’ eyes were exposed to radiation, similar to that emitted by common electronic devices. Forty rabbits were tested. The eyes were then stained and measured for corneal damage and epithelial cell loss. It was found that three types of millimeter-wave antennas can cause thermal injuries of varying type and levels. These waves can penetrate below the surface of the eye.

References:

General

Hecht, K., Savoley, E. N. (2007): Overloading of Towns and Cities with Radio Transmitters (Cellular Transmitter): a hazard for the human health and a disturbance of eco-ethics. IRCHET International Research Centre of Healthy and Ecological Technology Berlin – Germany. 6p http://www.hese-project.org/hese uk/en/niemr/hechtvortrag070724englisch.pdf

Navarro EA, Segura J, Portoles M, Gomez-Perretta C. (2003). The microwave syndrome: a preliminary study in spain. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 22:161–9. doi: 10.1081/JBC-120024625. http://www.emrpolicy.org/science/research/docs/navarro_ebm_2003.pdf

Navarro EA, Segura J, Portoles M, Gomez-Perretta C. (2003). The microwave syndrome: a preliminary study in spain. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 22:161–9. doi: 10.1081/JBC-120024625. http://www.emrpolicy.org/science/research/docs/navarro_ebm_2003.pdf

2015 Study by leading industry RF scientist shows that 3G GSM cell phone technology causes cancer in animals: http://www.microwavenews.com/news-center/rf-animal-cancer-promotion

One study has found that different health symptoms, such as depression, memory status, insomnia, and hair loss, were significantly associated with exposure to EMR from mobile towers.

Another study summarizes the evidence stating that excessive exposure to magnetic fields from power lines and other sources of electric current increases the risk of development of some cancers and neurodegenerative diseases, and that excessive exposure to RF radiation increases risk of cancer, male infertility, and neurobehavioral abnormalities.

A third study tended to suggest a need for more cautious use of cell phones with children, because children are expected to experience a longer lifetime exposure to Radio Frequency (RF) radiation from cell phones.

References:

Sperm Defects

Several studies done in rat models have shown that electronic devices like laptops and cell phones were able to negatively impact sperm quality. Sperm became defective with DNA damage and malformations, which decreased the sperm motility. In humans, similar results were found. Thus, there is caution from the medical community for men to avoid putting cell phones in their pant pockets.

References:

Erectile Dysfunction

Potential correlations have been found with cell phone use and negative impact on erectile dysfunction. Research in this area is new and trending. More data is expected to come out shortly.

References:

Pregnancy

One current study has found that prolonged computer and mobile phone use is associated with a 6-fold increase in the risk of miscarriage. In another study, researchers found exposure to 2450 MHz EMF, particularly in the prenatal period, resulted in postnatal growth restriction and delayed puberty in female Wistar rats. According other researchers, the fetus is most susceptible to radiation during organogenesis (2-7 weeks after conception) and in the early fetal period (8-15 weeks after conception).

Research also suggests that in-utero exposure to EMF can cause childhood obesity. Children who were exposed to high level of EMF while in the mother’s womb had ~70% risk of suffering from weight problems or obesity during childhood than children who had low in-utero exposure to magnetic fields.

At high levels of radiation exposure, the following can occur: spontaneous abortion, growth restriction, mental retardation, childhood obesity and cancer. Some articles argue that studies have not consistently found a link between non-ionizing radiation and disease. However, the fact that some links have been found is disconcerting. Caution is advised to pregnant women to avoid an unnecessary radiation exposure.

References:

Genetic Damage

Dasdag S1, Akdag MZ, Erdal ME, Erdal N, Ay OI, Ay ME, Yilmaz SG, Tasdelen B, Yegin K.  Effects of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi equipment on microRNA expression in brain tissue.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25775055?dopt=Abstract

Blank M1, Goodman RM. Electromagnetic fields and health: DNA-based dosimetry.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22676645

Mihai CT1, Rotinberg P, Brinza F, Vochita GExtremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields cause DNA strand breaks in normal cells. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24401758?dopt=Abstract

Headache

Chia SE, Chia HP, Tan JS. (2000). Health hazards of mobile phones Prevalence of headache is increased among users in Singapore BMJ. 321(7269):1155-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1118916/pdf/1155a.pdf

Studies have found that Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and Radio Frequency (RF) Electromagnetic Radiation can cause impairment and mutations in DNA, which can lead to cancer. Other studies find that Electromagnetic Radiation may lead to changes in the physiological indices, genetics, and immune function of the operators.

References:

Insomnia or Sleeplessness

Santini R, Santini P, Danze J M, Le Ruz P, Seigne M. (2002). Study of the health of people living in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations: 1st Influence of distance and sex; Pathol Biol; 50: 369– 73. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12168254 [Article in French]

In Jan 2013, Airport surveillance operators were studied. These workers are routinely exposed to pulsed high frequency electromagnetic fields. Potential health effects were investigated. Workers were given a self-administered assessment tool. Also, they were tested for visual reaction time and short-term memory using standardized tests. The results indicated that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiation led to changes in somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction, and severe depression. Even rats exposed to Electromagnetic Radiation experienced irregular sleep cycles.

References:

Liver Damage

Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2014 May;34(5):575-80. [Effect of American Ginseng Capsule on the liver oxidative injury and the Nrf2 protein expression in rats exposed by electromagnetic radiation of frequency of cell phone]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24941847

Microwave Syndrome

Corrêa H, Duval F, Mokrani MC, Bailey P, Trémeau F, rt al (2002). . Serotonergic function and suicidal behavior in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res.56(1-2):75-85. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12084422

Hinrikus, H (2010) Spectral features of EEG in depression. Biomedizinische Technik/Biomedical Engineering 55(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20415629

In a Chinese study, published in May 2014, Electromagnetic Radiation induced by a 900 MHz cell phone was determined to affect the expression of the Nrf2 protein and induce abnormal morphology of liver cells, causing oxidative injury. The publication was looking for ways to reverse damage to the liver caused by cell phone radiation.

References:

Exposure to Electromagnetic Radiation at 1800 MHz impaired neural cell growth. This points to a mechanism by which brain damage could occur from Electromagnetic Radiation exposure.

References:

Pregnancy

Bellieni CV, Pinto I, Bogi A, Zoppetti N, Andreuccetti D, Buonocore G (2012). Exposure to electromagnetic fields from laptop use of “laptop” computers. Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health 67(1):31-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=22315933

Cao, YN; Y Zhang, Y Liu (2006). “Effects of exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on reproduction of female mice and development of offsprings”. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 24 (8): 468-70  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16978513

Studies have been published describing cognitive and physiological effects of extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure.

References:

Stress and sleep disturbances

Thomée S, Härenstam A, Hagberg M. (2011). Mobile phone use and stress, sleep disturbances, and symptoms of depression among young adults–a prospective cohort study. BMC Public Health. 11:66-77. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3042390/pdf/1471-2458-11-66.pdf

Other Relevant Information and Reports

Smart Meters

Radiation is energy. Too much of it can cause an adverse effect. According to the EPA, there are two types of health effects associated with exposure to radiation. The two categories are: those arising from stochastic or long-term, low-level chronic exposure and those arising from non-stochastic or high levels of radiation exposure. Generally, non-ionizing radiation effects are deemed to be stochastic in nature, as the radiation is considered lower energy and therefore may take time to show noticeable effect. A variety of ailments are associated with stochastic radiation exposure. Radiation has even been indicted as an environmental toxin, which synergizes with other pollutants to cause an exacerbated negative effect.

References:

Toasted Skin Syndrome

Laptops can reach temperatures upwards of 110-115 ºF. Toasted skin syndrome is a condition in which reddish-brown hyperpigmentation is seen on the surface of the skin, caused by heat and radiation exposure from laptops.The pigmentation change was, thus far, irreversible.

References:

Australian study showing health effects of wireless smart meters:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25478801

Red blood cells are affected by microwave radiation from wireless smart meters: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y4JDEspdx58

Bee Colonies

Bee Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) can be partially explained by the increased microwave radiation in our environment from wireless technologies–study out of Switzerland: http://www.cellphonetaskforce.org/?page_id=672

Bioinitiative Report 2012:

This is a report by 29 scientists and health experts from 10 countries and is an update on a 2007 report. The Editor notes: “Exposures are linked to a variety of adverse health outcomes that may have significant public health consequences. When added across billions of people world-wide, no argument for the status quo can be persuasive now.”   1800 new studies are discussed and commented on: “Overall, there is reinforced evidence of risk where there is chronic exposure to low intensity electromagnetic fields and to wireless technologies (radiofrequency radiation including microwave radiation.”  http://www.bioinitiative.org/

radiofrequency-research-does-funding-matter

If you are in any doubt about any of the scientific research see who is funding that research.